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Its measures of the number of children risk being biased, however, because the questionnaire does not directly ask about the number of children ever born to a woman or man, and only those children who live in the parental household are observed. These limitations are problematic not only for demographic but also for socioeconomic analysis because family size and fertility behaviour are important determinants of income and living conditions.

For ten countries, we first quantify the bias in the reported number of children, distinguishing fertility measures by age and birth order. We then identify the socioeconomic profiles that are most subject to biased measures. Size The size of the map in variable according to the intended purpose and level of details. Purpose This is the topic where cartography classification becomes more complex: 4. Topographical Charts Topographical charts include data gathered through field research, planmetry, altimetry and aerophotography. They are extremely precise and governments mainly use them on strategies and military logistics Geographical Cartographies They are created by private companies and they are available to the public in general.

Their charts normally come into reduced scale; the contents are simplified and generalized Thematic Chart We have here the case of the diagram, with a conceptual and informational purpose. The thematic charts represent specific facts or phenomena political, biological, statistics, physical, etc. They can approach concepts and subjects that are in constant and continuous transformation, as migration fluxes, forest destruction, etc. Generally, the diagrams that support the information contained on the thematic chart are extracted from the geographic cartography. They are also denominated cartograms.

A labyrinth typology Labyrinths are images that have persisted in the history of humanity since millenniums. This long, continuous and mutant permanence unveils to us deep questions of human thought. More than the common sense is used to define; the labyrinths are signs of complexity.

The greatest allure of labyrinths may reside in the fact that they are paradoxical and propose, each one in its own way, opposite and varied logics. When one speaks about labyrinths, it is good to remember that besides human constructions, there are also natural labyrinths. Among them, the caverns and the caves that, with their narrow passages, propose us trace difficulties. The shells, exemplar image of the spiral theme, are other fecund source of daydream and reverie.

The flowers, and their mandalic constructions, the leaves, the roots and the rhizomes are also natural. Labyrinth is present in our own body, in many of our organs such as the brain, the inner ear, and even at the fingerprint, unique sign of our identity. The labyrinthine imaginary is present in several periods of mankind.

One of the oldest graphical representations dated from the neoliptic age and is found in the cave of Valcamonia, Italy. Among antiquity's labyrinths, there are the Egyptian totally destroyed, whose original plan was reconstructed by the English archeologist Flindres Petrie, in and the Cretan immortalized by the mythical narratives of Theseus, Ariadne and Minotaur. In the Egyptian case, we have a magnificent and majestic construction, as space dedicated to the protection of the sacred.

The Egyptian labyrinth was, at the same time, sanctuary and monumental representation of the power of pharaoh and sacerdotal class. On the other hand, the Cretan labyrinth is a prison and a shelter for the monstrous. We find this thematic in nightmares producing dark and tortuous corridors, facing a double challenge: to find the right path and kill the beast. The labyrinths built in gardens spaces however propose another question, and another logic.

In the case of Versailles labyrinth, for example, the idea was not to question, to puzzle or to confuse visitors. To emphasize this character of delight, he placed among the flowerbeds many sculptures featuring scenes of Aesop s fables. It is therefore impossible to think of a general concept that would define the labyrinth in a single word. The classic definition of a labyrinth being such a difficult and intricate construction that the walker often loses his sense of direction and meet difficulties to reach the center, corresponds to one type of labyrinth only, and reduces the complexity involved in this theme.

Let s examine a case where the pilgrim does not have to face any doubts or question which path he should take: the labyrinths built on the ground of medieval churches, such as Chartres and Amiens cathedrals. We can say that these labyrinths do not present any problem about decision taking, as they offer one-option paths only, without any branches. Different from problematizing mazes, this kind of drawing does not present any division throughout its course. Therefore, one-course labyrinths do not offer the visitor any free choice.

As there is no path to be chosen, there is no possibility to get lost, and the visitor only has to follow the circumvolutions, in and out, as they have been conceived by the architect. However, these beautiful diagrams had a deep spiritual meaning to the faithful. There were more than mere ornamental drawings: the novice who walked through these labyrinths while he was praying, tried to reach a supreme state of mental concentration.

To walk through these labyrinths was a quest for a sacred space, a substitution to a pilgrimage to Holy Land. According to our proposition of elaborating a labyrinthine typology, this kind of labyrinth would be the first: without any forks, also called one-course labyrinth. The second type of labyrinth, maybe the most frequent in stories and legends, corresponds to a labyrinth with crossroads.

We will however examine some points of interest for our current discussion. In labyrinths with crossroads, the use of schemes to pave the path, such as Hop o my thumb s pebbles or a leading thread Ariadne s thread , are extremely useful to whom does not want to become lost. However, we have to remember that many artistic works in hypermedia consider the art of getting lost as a poetic stimulus see web art works of Jodi 5 and Landsbeyond 6.

Cyberspace labyrinth belongs to another class, another typology. It maintains characteristics of the first kind as well as of the second kind, but it goes beyond. We are here facing a rhizome-type labyrinth. A rhizome can be connected in different directions and from each of its points - so does WWW. A rhizome does not have one center only, we have got a center in all its points. Some authors refer to the very mind as an example of rhizome-type labyrinth. Reflections about the concept of maps In the studies about labyrinths, the concept of maps is a quite important topic.

When we think about labyrinths, different possible maps do exist. The first one, the easiest to conceive, is about the plan, the project of the labyrinth constructed at the moment of its conception. When a labyrinth is rationally thought in order to be built, it is reasonable that a map, or a project for its realization, would exist.

But, as we have already seen, thousands of labyrinths have been created spontaneously and in these cases, no pre-drawn maps do, a priori, exist. A second possible category is about maps created from the discovery of a space that is being walked over. These diagrams, these travelers maps, are registers of the wandering into the unknown, into what has been met by chance, through search and observation.

We thus can start this reflection with the statement that two possible map categories may exist: the first about the ones that are created and elaborated within imagination, by a thinking mind that has got a panoramic and global view on the ground where the labyrinth is going to be realized.

In common sense, we usually mix up the concepts of maps and visual representation of labyrinthine space. Deleuze e Guattari , in an attempt to differentiate the two concepts, gave to the representation the name decalque. Most of the time, the labyrinth traveler does not even know the decalque, that is to say, he has no panoramic and global vision of the whole space to be walked over. Therefore, during the wandering, he can only count on information that will be locally collected.

However, even when the pilgrim can count on the help of a graphic representation of space, we know that other geographies, other characteristics and peculiarities are not present in the diagram. These geographies, despite being included in the represented space, go further and multiply spaces and unfold during the walking. The fact is, beyond the represented spaces, other spaces exist and coexist, that are impossible to be reproduced in their complexity.

Maps can only be apprehended through the walking and the oscillating movements between local order and global order, going in and out, perceiving and rationalizing. Let s observe now a cope of the most recent attempts to represent and visualize cyberspace. Maps and conventions: a glance on ancient maps My research on cyberspace started in the early 90s.

But I have always had a passion for ancient maps. What I think most charming about these maps is the reflection on how they have been conceived and created, so different from the conventions we are used to find during geography classes. It is unbelievable to think that, with the progress of naval art, courageous men would venture into unknown oceans, sometimes with the only help of hand-drawn maps, beautiful ones, however partially or totally deprived of information about where to go On these ancient maps, it is common to find practical information, such as bays and mountains, as well as imaginary elements, such as sirens and dragons.

Besides, the vast ocean spaces were often occupied by elaborated and sophisticated calligraphies. These elements seem to tell us how much the unknown could be scaring, enigmatic and a ground for the most incredible fantasies. The evolution in boat construction occurred in parallel to cartography evolution. In order to be possible to move forward to unknown territories, the already visited ones needed to be registered. Ancient maps signaling reveals this purpose and theses concerns. In cartography evolution, we can see the appearance of scales, colors, sea topographic details, mountains, hills, lakes, rivers, titles and legends, among other signaling elements.

The marking of cardinal points, for example, is fundamental for orientation. Even if we are now used to draw maps locating north in the upper part, there is no logical reason to do so. Ancient medieval maps used to put east on the top of the drawing, as homage to sacred places of the Orient. The very word orientation originates from this sacrosanct positioning. The procedure of using north to orient maps has been established in Italy, but, by the beginning of 19th century, examples using other orientation are still frequent Hodgkin, These and other examples make us aware that our cartography, the one we are so much used to, is the result of conventions that have evolved throughout history.

One of the visions that had the strongest impact on my life has been that of the gallery of ancient maps during my visit to Vatican. The author of the paintings was Egnizio Danti, cosmographer and a Dominican friar. In the Galleries, we can see 40 maps of Italian harbors, two walls facing each other, composing the largest cycle of cartography images of Europe. According to Lucio Gambi, geographer of Milano University and author of the book The gallery of maps in Vatican, the series painted by Danti shows supreme geographical accuracy.

Even if I was not aware of this technical information at the first moment, the observation of these maps made me thoughtful. It was as if they were in front of me the ample proof that men use conventions in order to try to represent the world in the most accurate way. Besides, the gallery of maps was an obvious demonstration of how conventions become obsolete.

In spite of Danti s efforts to register in a clear way the data of the portrayed cities, his work was rambling, submerging in minor details, in stylized landscapes that did not make any sense, however beautiful they were. I could thus look at Danti s paintings seeking aesthetic delight, as improved paintings, as pieces of sophisticated transparences, however, I could not grasp any sense of map, of cartography.

Over the years, my attraction to ancient maps have not vanished, on the. I started to understand something more. Obviously, the Vatican maps were still disturbing me, but they were now telling me other stories. I was more controlled and calm, and therefore able to listen to their message. Although and because the sense of strangeness produced by these maps has been deafening, they teach us that our cartography conventions are not the only ones. It is maybe time for us, as we venture through the exploration of new and unknown territories such as cyberspace, to think and seek other kinds of representation, other maps.

Maps and representation of cyberspace History When we think in cartographing cyberspace, the great challenge seems to be: how to represent this large and changing territory, that transforms itself continuously? This challenge has been a stimulus to many people, among them, scientists, engineers, and obviously, artists. The oldest cyberspace maps are now an important source of information and their data reveal surprising aspects of Big Web s evolution and developing.

Internet History 7, timeline that shows a collection of old Net maps, is a classic reference for people who investigate historical aspects of the WWW. This site shows a collection of different kinds of maps - with comments and respective links, lists of discussion and articles about the topic. Intending to show maps of digital culture from individual perspectives, Omnizone counted on the participation of artists, curators, scientists, programmers, etc.

Many of the maps that I will comment have been found in these two sites, although others have appeared as a result of the search engines. The research on cyberspace maps developed into three phases. I first listed all the sites and programs that aimed the visualization of the Internet. The second step included visits to the sites, downloads of software and practical experimentation.

I confess that it has been a hard work, but there was no other way to find and understand these maps and their functioning. The final phase was the classification of the maps into categories, that is to explain their basic differences, regarding not only their purpose but also, and mainly, the contents to be cartographed. It is clear to me that the most important criterion for the. A classification of cyberspace maps 1. Infrastructure maps This category includes the representation of the structural webs that turn possible the emergence of cyberspace.

They are unbelievable, splendid and surprising. Among the most fantastic ones, are maps of satellite webs and submarine communication cables. I also discovered maps of the planning for future optical fibers webs. Besides, I have to mention the Maps of Internet Service Providers, ISP, that show diagrams of the providers, the links between them and the users of the web. Traceroutes maps The traceroutes explore the directions followed by the data between the place they are filed and their arrival to their destination computer.

It is quite interesting to see the paths information walks on before it reaches us. Trace routes unveil the hidden world of Internet NetBird 11 : this program provides us maps that originate from commands of traceroutes realized by different computers of volunteers connected to the web. The Skitter measures and visualizes the paths followed by the data when they leave their source until they reach they many destinations. In spite of its abstract shape, it is a very useful map for the identification of critical paths, being thus a fundamental tool to web engineers SCAN 13 :this is another program that produces maps of the traceroutes.

The Scan emphasizes the topological relationships. It addresses to big, dynamic and homogenic webs. It is a useful tool to isolate problems on traffic routes. Figure 2: Map created by Skitter software. Websites Maps Websites maps are quite useful and frequently used in the case of vast and complex sites. Among these maps, some have been created to help internauts navigation on the site and others in order to help the administrator of the site and the Webmaster.

Paul Jahn wrote an interesting and profound article about this topic. Some examples:. They use the metaphor of files archiving and can be visualized in a projection. These maps indicate the main knots and the respective links of large Websites. The differential of these maps is the visual composition that reminds of the images we obtain using fisheye lens.

User Interface Research Group 16 : also from Xerox, PARC, approaches the structures and the contents of large websites from the angle of evolving ecology. Without any doubt, the research led by Ed H. Chi and Stuart K. Card is extremely revolutionary and innovating and suggest interesting paths.

Their ideas can be checked in the article Visualizing the evolution of web ecologies Figure 4: H. They reveal the development of webs.

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WebMap uses numbers to indicate the sequence followed in navigation. It has been presented during II WWW International Conference WWW Graphic History Browser 19 : created by the pair Eric Ayers and John Statsko in , organizes the trajectory created throughout navigation into a conventionally structured diagram with one advantage however: the sketch is made of little rectangles that reproduce the image of the accessed pages. Squirrel works with the metaphor of the farm.

Each farm is a file used by the program to map informational spaces. The farms allow many different kinds of data structuration. The main idea is that the user keeps on filing, cultivating and organizing farm elements. Besides, the farms, being registers, can be shared with other users. To summarize, Squirrel is software that helps organize visually information obtained during navigation. Internet Carthographer 21 : from Inventix Software company is a software that works together with the browser.

It classifies and maps all visited page. The visual aspect of the map is abstract, showing different points scattered on the screen and crossing lines. At the side of the visual map, there is a summary of informative data. Natto View 22 : by H. Shiozawa and Y. Matsushita, from University of Science and Technology of Keio, Japan, allows a three-dimensional visualization of navigation. It presents a three-dimensional visualization. They are complex and sophisticated maps. Figure 5: WebPath Map. It presents three-dimensional visualization. Matrix, located in Austin, Texas, developed different softwares that measure, analyze and cartograph the Net.

Among the maps of the web, the most recent, called Internet Weather Report 27 - IWR: it is a dynamic representation with animated maps. The mapping method is based upon the locating of web knots and applies these data to a representation of classic geography, the map of the world. In , Quarterman published the book, The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide, today a class in the discussion of problematical aspects in computer webs mapping.

The title of the book, Matrix, in the meaning used by Quarterman, is the set of all computers interconnected webs. This map showing three-dimensional arcs is perhaps the most famous image of what Internet is. Actually, this image is a visualization of traffic flows between 50 countries. Eick s group from Bell Laboratories.

The purpose of this mapping approach is to signal web data as a whole. The big difference with MIDS project is that this one does not use traditional geography. On the contrary, data maps are created into an abstract space. According to the authors article Mapping the Internet Project 29 their project does not use old conventions, as concepts such as places, countries and territories are challenged.

The produced image reminds of the structure of a tree, showing the paths to most of the webs. The paths change throughout times.

The traffic routes are reconfigured and Internet expands. The authors keep the created images and intend to realize a movie about this expansion. The algorithm of image processing is simple and currently consumes about 20 hours. In a second phase, the produced map is painted to show different data. One of theses beautiful maps was published on the coverpage of Wired magazine in December When the authors are asked about the place we are on the map, they say that this would be impossible today, because of the complexity of the portrayed web: about knots.

Figure 9: Map produced by Internet Mapping Project. Conceptual or Topographical Maps Topographical maps are a classic in WWW and can be found not only at a macroscopic level, that is during a mapping search of the web as a whole, but also at a microscopic level, regarding the orientation of a user of a specific site. Yahoo site home page, although it does not visually look as a map - the way we are used to conceive it - could be considered as belonging to this category, as it organizes different Websites into topics.

Many other sites, called portals, also organize Web information into topics. Besides, it is frequent to find on the Web personal pages that display lists with indications of links. Cybermaps Landmarks 31 : a project developed by John December during the years The idea behind this mapping is to emphasize visually the domains of information.

Newsmaps 32 : the proposition of the site is to collect news from different sources and organize them visually, or, as the site itself names it, to present information interactive landscapes. The visual composition is structured into topics. What is behind Newsmaps is a software system that accesses Web documents - not only news agencies but also online groups of discussion 33 - and organizes them into a sort of landscape of interconnected topics. The maps tell us where to access a big concentration of documents, messages and discussions about a specific theme.

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The appearance of the green maps that can be accessed on the site Newsmaps reminds of mountains, peaks and valleys. Peaks indicate a big concentration of documents about a specific subject. The higher the peaks, the larger the quantity of similar documents. Besides this topographical organization, the site offers tools for search, that locate a specific subject in relation to existing topics.

The navigator still counts on the resource of using flags to mark the most interesting points. Figure Image of a Newsmaps information map 6. Web Map about teenagers happiness 34 : map of interconnected topics, generated from an initial question and other subjects that appeared from this questioning. According to the author, cinema teacher Lee Boot, this map is a "personal and global exploration of themes that disturb adolescents".

Following this line, "while incorporating personal and global thinking, some point should appear where consciousness is expanded" Its interface reminds of a sketched exercise book and each word designed in print letters corresponds to a link of a WWW site. The map is organized into concepts and is a mirror of the choices of the author himself and the paths he walked over on the Web. What is most interesting, in a work that looks quite simple, is that the construction of the page not only organizes the author s thinking but also allows a quick visualization of the topics and their interconnections.

In Lee Boot s words: I like to think of this website as the node, and the Internet itself as a huge morass of connections and real choices. This model echoes that of the human brain. A website is to the Internet as a neuron is to the brain. This is a form I present often in this work. The aim of the first phase, DLI-1, was to develop techniques to find and rescue information contained in big data banks and then to create nets of semantic connections between them. Phase 2 intends to develop techniques and methodologies for analysis and automatic visualization of large collections of documents.

The method includes human classification systems and Artificial Intelligence systems. The visual effect reminds of a colorful mosaic being transformed by internauts interaction. Some of my favorite web sites are art 38 : this site has organized a web art exhibition, using the idea of gallery as a metaphor.

It functions as a map with web artists works while it organizes and contextualizes the exhibited works. There are some curatorial texts by Rachel Baker and Alex Galloway. Artists and maps In this final group, we will see poetical propositions that have been developed by artists and groups of people interested in creating cyberspace visualizations.

Different from the maps that we have already commented, the artistic approaches are much more free from technical concerns about data acquisition and organization. Generally, although they use technological resources, the latters must not be considered as scientific tools for the analysis of WWW structures or the functioning of the nets.

Artistic maps never tell us - almost never - where we are or even the indication of the page on URL. Besides, the aim of these projects is not to help in the orientation through the sea of data. They are not precise, they are disturbing and they corrupt many of our pre-established ideas about cyberspace. The next projects that I will comment offer hidden beauties, cause a feeling of strangeness and make us incapable to answer questions, which we had never dreamed of.

WebStalker subverts one of WWW conventions that have been less questioned: the browser. As you know, the traditional browsers 40 pick up the data that are written in HTML 41 and translate the code into the shape we are used to look at. The difference is that WebStalker does not display on screen the information about these files; instead, it offers a graphical translation of the code structure. The maps produced by WebStalker have a great aesthetic power.

Each link turns into a line, each page is represented by circles. Download can be made on the site: 40 The most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. The projects created by Sensorium are intriguing propositions for discussions about Internet and stimulate our perception. The map allows the visualization of the personal journey in red and the trajectory of other people, interacting within the net, in blue.

The representation is dynamic and poetic. As for BeWare, it is a live object that reflects the conditions of the Earth from the angle of NOAA, a satellite in polar orbit, located at an altitude of km. The photographic images of the surface of Earth produced by NOAA are analyzed and converted into temperature data. During the exhibition of BeWare, people could touch and feel the different temperatures. The most interesting point in this sensory map is that it uses data transmission through Internet as a tool of statement. Quite in the same line as Brazilian artist Lygia Clark s sensory objects, BeWare stimulates our senses and our perception of the world.

Figure Map of Web Hopper, showing internauts movements. The browser is dead. Mediamatic, vol. Visualizing the evolution of web ecologies. Mille plateaux. Paris: Minuit. The gallery of maps in Vatican.

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George Braziller. Discovering Antique Maps. Bucks: Shire Publications. KAHN, Paul Woburn, MA: Digital Press. Is it possible to speak about male-pixels and female-pixels? Wouldn t be better to say they are hermaphrodites, just like angels? The question is neither rhetoric nor ironic; on the contrary, it is getting more and more imperative to answer it today, when this entity called biocomputer enjoys such a rapid development.

I am certain that, despite being are not sex discriminated the young pixels, as qualia sensibles would rather dream of playing the part of immaterial actants, since they consider themselves to be minimal subjects to the digital process of updating programs capable of generating digital objects and fictions.

Naturally, they would also like to play some parts in a new arena of representation, seen as a new space for revelation. The complexity of this theme is so fascinating and overwhelming that I will have to narrow it down to two particular sub-themes: enunciation medium and reception medium. The former being the medium upon which the computer produced work is transferred whereas the latter is creating an interactive relation between the work and the user. An Arts History from the exclusive perspective of media support evolution would be rather interesting to write. In this respect, it is not difficult to notice the lack of a clear distinction, in all traditional arts, between media and means by which works are created.

Similarly, there is no distinction between enunciation media and reception media painting, books, etc. However, there is a general agreement on the artistic representation on a material support, an agreement established during the Renaissance and still observed by the iconological theory of strata in a work of art Panofski, A clear separation between media support and means of creation occurs at the same time with the appearance of recording means mechanical, optical, chemical , such as photography, cinematography, discography or later video and television all paradigmatic means of analogical expression.

Media can be divided into enunciation media films, magnetic tapes and reception media screen, computer display. In Romance languages, the meanings of the terms: means of creation and media support are clearly distinguished. The same distinction appears in German: Ausdruckmittel and Unterlage. Contemporary African social and political philosophy is rooted in the daily lives of African people, and it expresses itself through multiple modalities including, for example, art, religion, literature, music and the policy of urbanization of African cities.

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This book sheds new light on debates concerning topics such as ethnophilosophy, negritude, pan-Africanism, democracy, African civil society, African cultures, and globalization. It aims to ward off the lethargy that strikes African social and political philosophy, taking a renewed and critical approach. K Unknown. Contemporary customary land issues in Africa : navigating the contours of change [].

Description Book — xii, pages : illustrations ; 22 cm Summary This book examines current trends in customary land issues in Africa, focusing on the practice of converting customary land into leasehold tenure, particularly in Zambia. Since enactment of the Lands Act No. Alienating customary land into leasehold tenure has serious implications for local and national politics and gender dynamics. Analysis of these trends suggests that the policy of creating land markets on customary land is subjecting customary systems to the forces of change.

However, governments that have adopted this policy have not, by and large, adopted measures to respond to these challenges. Although customary tenure is widely believed to be resilient, it is not clear how the customary system will navigate the current winds of change. C66 Unknown. Contemporary dance []. Summary To date, scholars have tended, with a few exceptions, to write about African dance in primarily ethnographic terms. This collection seeks to challenge this pattern and expand dance research by engaging with the aesthetics and socio-political impact of dance for communities in and out of Africa in an increasingly global context.

Contributors to this issue look at the impact that specifically situated indigenous dance forms have had on the development of new forms locally, and the reciprocal impact of local and international infrastructures, including funding bodies, tourism and festivals. African Theatre 17 examines how dance is contributing to a particularly African interculturalism, while analysing the issues of representation of Africa in a postcolonial context. Highlights include a dance photo essay on F. Gang's site-specific street performance "Untitled" in Lagos, a new non-themed section, and the playscript Lunatic!

Contemporary issues in African society : historical analysis and perspective []. Cham, Switzerland : Palgrave Macmillan, Description Book — xv, pages ; 22 cm. Introduction: Framing the African Condition2. Non-Governmental Organizations and the African State3.

Conflict Resolution in Africa. Africa and the European Union9. The book covers topics such as the expansive role of non-governmental organizations, the growing influence of charismatic Pentecostalism, ethnic conflicts in East Africa, the failure of the African Union's peacekeeping efforts in Sudan's Darfur region, and Africa's expanding relations with the European Union.

It combines discussion of these frontier issues shaping contemporary African society with analysis from leading policy experts. Contemporary issues in Africa's development : whither the African Renaissance? Description Book — xiii, pages : illustrations ; 22 cm Summary This volume reports on the state of crisis in Africa in the early twenty-first century. By the third decade of independence, optimism had been replaced by dismality.

African states had been beset by ethno-political squabbles, military rule, civil wars, Islamic and insurgent movements, extreme poverty and disease. This book asks, with hindsight to the first decade of the twenty-first century: how real was the renaissance in African life? If the dismal African condition is a phase in the historical development of Africa, this volume does not see any golden age in the past to which Africa aspires to return. There is clearly a continuation and persistence of crisis, with an absence of good governance, personalisation of state power, widespread disease, and policy failure in education, economy and infrastructural development.

Although endowed with abundant human and natural resources, Africa remains the least developed and most indebted continent. Whither then the African Renaissance? The methodologies that underpin the contributions in this book are as diverse as the specialisations of the contributors. The collection questions ideologically protected assumptions and presumptions, presenting Africa as it is, because it is only by knowing where Africa truly stands that a proper direction can be charted for it.

Aka-Evy, Jean-Luc, author. Paris : L'Harmattan, [] Description Book — pages ; 22 cm. A43 Available. D56 C74 T. Pinto, Alberto Oliveira, author. P56 Unavailable At bindery Request. Description Book — pages ; 24 cm Summary Pt. A G Available. Anafak et Leonel K. Nguefack Monde post Guerre froide et reconfiguration de la notion de puissance : quel espace pour l'Afrique? C74 Available. The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa []. Baltimore, Maryland : Project Muse, Yates 5. Kwaja 6. Kabia 7. The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa is an assemblage of transdisciplinary essays that offer a spirited reflection on the debate and phenomenon of postcoloniality in Africa, including the changing patterns and ramifications of problems, challenges and opportunities associated with it.

A key conceptual rhythm that runs through the various chapters of the book is that, far from being demised, postcoloniality is still firmly embedded in Africa, manifesting itself in both blatant and insidious forms. Among the important themes covered in the book include the concepts of postcolonialism, postcoloniality, and neocolonialism; Africa's precolonial formations and the impact of colonialism; the enduring patterns of colonial legacies in Africa; the persistent contradictions between African indigenous institutions and western versions of modernity; the unravelling of the postcolonial state and issues of armed conflict, conflict intervention and peacebuilding; postcolonial imperialism in Africa and the US-led global war on terror, the historical and postcolonial contexts of gender relations in Africa, as well as pan-Africanism and regionalist approaches to redressing the crises of postcoloniality.

Critical terms for the study of Africa []. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, Description Book — pages ; 23 cm Summary For far too long, the Western world viewed Africa as unmappable terrain--a repository for outsiders' wildest imaginings. This problematic notion has had lingering effects not only on popular impressions of the region but also on the development of the academic study of Africa.

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Critical Terms for the Study of Africa considers the legacies that have shaped our understanding of the continent and its place within the conceptual grammar of contemporary world affairs. Written by a distinguished group of scholars, the essays compiled in this volume take stock of African studies today and look toward a future beyond its fraught intellectual and political past.

Each essay discusses one of our most critical terms for talking about Africa, exploring the trajectory of its development while pushing its boundaries. Editors Gaurav Desai and Adeline Masquelier balance the choice of twenty-five terms between the expected and the unexpected, calling for nothing short of a new mapping of the scholarly field. The result is an essential reference that will challenge assumptions, stimulate lively debate, and make the past, present, and future of African Studies accessible to students and teachers alike.

C75 Unknown. From urban fragility to urban stability. Portuguese Commins, Stephen K. Description Book — 1 online resource 10 unnumbered pages : color illustrations. Online purl. Dangote and pan-African economic transformation : the revolutionary impact []. Iweriebor, Ehiedu E. Ehiedu Emmanuel Goodluck , author. Z9 E Available. Dani Nabudere's Afrikology : a quest for African holism []. Osha, Sanya, author. O84 Available. Description Book — 98 pages ; 25 cm.

M87 Available. Stassen, Nicol, author. Eerste uitgawe. A46 S Unavailable In process. French Commins, Stephen K. Description Book — 1 online resource 11 unnumbered page : color illustrations. The death penalty from an African perspective : views from Zimbabwean and Nigerian philosophers [].

A35 D43 Unknown. Debating witchcraft in Africa : the "Magritte Effect" []. Nyamnjoh Witchcraft : a knowledge that defies knowing? A35 D43 Available.

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Sufo Sufo, author. Un jour, il rencontre Julie Rose qu'il sauve des patrouilles de police. Pourquoi rester? S84 D43 Available. D43 Available. Decolonisation of materialities or materialisation of re- colonisation? Nauta Conjugating materialities and symbols in contemporary Africa?

The second trajectory privileges restoration, restitution, reparations for colonial dispossessions, lootings and disinheritance. While the first trajectory presupposes that colonialism was merely about "separation", "alienation", and "disconnections" between human beings and nature, the second trajectory stresses the colonialists' dispossession, disinheritance and privations of Africans.

Drawing on contemporary discourses about materialities in relation to semiotics, non- representationalism, rhetoric, ecocriticism, territorialisation, deterritorialisation and reterritorialisation, translation, animism, science and technology studies, this book teases out the intellectually rutted terrain of African materialities. It argues that in a world of increasing impoverishment, the significance of materialities cannot be overemphasised: more so for the continent of Africa where impoverishment "materialises" in the midst of resource opulence.

The book is a pacesetter in no holds barred interrogation of African materialities. D38 Available. Decolonisation pathways : postcoloniality, globalisation, and African development []. Kampala : Uganda Martyrs University, Description Book — xvii, pages ; 21 cm. Decolonising colonial education : doing away with relics and toxicity embedded in the racist dominant grand narrative []. Mhango, Nkwazi Nkuzi, author. Relationship and peace and conflict based on decolonised education Prescriptive nature of colonial and toxic education : how the dominant grand narrative monopolised knowledge Taking on the dominant grand narrative as the beneficiary and creator of toxic education.

This book on decolonising education chastises, heartens and invites academics to seriously commence academic and intellectual manumission by challenging the current toxic episteme - the Western dominant Grand Narrative that embeds, espouses and superimposes itself on others. It exhorts African scholars in particular to unite and address the bequests of colonialism and its toxic episteme by confronting the internalised fabrications, hegemonic dominance, lies and myths that have caused many conflicts in world history.

Such a toxic episteme founded on problematic experiments, theories and praxis has tended to license unsubstantiated views and stereotypes of others as intellectually impotent, moribund and of inferior humanity. The book invites academics and intellectuals to commit to a healthy dialogue among the world's competing traditions of knowing and knowledge production to produce a truly accommodating and inclusive grand narrative informed by a recognition of a common and shared humanity.

A4 M43 Available. Paris : L'Harmattan, [] Description Book — pages : illustrations, facsimiles ; 22 cm. A15 T34 Available. Determinants of economic growth in Africa []. Part One. Financing Growth Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Part Two. Sources of Productivity Growth Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Chapter 9. Part Three. Macroeconomic Determinants of Growth Chapter Chapter Grouped into three parts, chapters examine the influence of financial sources and economic growth; sources of productivity growth; and prices, exchange rates and trade relationships with growth in regions in Africa or the continent as a whole.

This edited book is authored by African experts in the field who employ diverse up-to-date data and methods to provide robust empirical results based on representative firms, household surveys and secondary country level data covering individuals or multiple countries on the continent. It contains a wealth of empirical evidence, deep analyses and sound recommendations for policymakers and researchers for designing and implementing effective social and national policies and strategies to prevent and to reduce poverty and its negative effects on poor households and in poor regions.

The volume will be a useful resource for policymakers and researchers involved in promoting economic growth and fighting poverty. It will also appeal to a broader audience interested in economic development, resource economics, policies, economic welfare and inclusive growth. D Unknown. Development, diplomacy, and defense : promoting U. Committee on Foreign Affairs, author. Description Book — 1 online resource iii, 65 pages Online purl. Development naivety and emergent insecurities in a monopolised world : the politics and sociology of development in contemporary Africa [].

What has always missed in development paradigms "imposed" on Africa? It is common knowledge that development without security is like a runaway horse. Yet, development in Africa has been plagued by insecurities since the extractive periods of slave trade and colonialism. In spite of political independence and the euphoria of sovereignty as states, Africa has failed to address insecurity, which continues to loom large and to threaten aspirations towards truly inclusive and sustainable development. To salvage the continent from such predation and the insecurities engendered requires novel and innovative imagination and praxis.

This book draws from both the haunted landscapes and bitter memories of past exploitations and from the feeding of the insatiable North with African resources and humanity. It brings together essays by a concerned generation of scholars driven by the urgent need for radical decolonisation of African development and its legacies of insecurities. It is handy to students and practitioners in economics, policy studies, political science, development studies, global and African studies.

D Available. Dictatorland : the men who stole Africa []. Kenyon, Paul, author. London : Head of Zeus Ltd, Description Book — xix, pages, 8 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations chiefly color , maps ; 25 cm Summary The dictator who grew so rich on his country's cocoa crop that he built a storey-high basilica in the jungles of the Ivory Coast. The austere, incorruptible leader who has shut Eritrea off from the world in a permanent state of war and conscripted every adult into the armed forces.

In Equatorial Guinea, the paranoid despot who thought Hitler was the saviour of Africa and waged a relentless campaign of terror against his own people. The Libyan army officer who authored a new work of political philosophy, The Green Book, and lived in a tent with a harem of female soldiers, running his country like a mafia family business. And behind these almost incredible stories of fantastic violence and excess lie the dark secrets of Western greed and complicity, the insatiable taste for chocolate, oil, diamonds and gold that have encouraged dictators to rule with an iron hand, siphoning off their share of the action into mansions in Paris and banks in Zurich and keeping their people in dire poverty.

K46 Available. Dieu, les migrants et l'Afrique []. Paris : L'Harmattan, [] Description Book — pages : illustrations, maps, chart ; 24 cm. D54 Available. Yamada, Shoko, author. Framework of the study. Introduction ; Literature review Part II. Global discourse on the colonial education in Africa and its constructs. The context which conditioned the discourse ; Genesis of British colonial education policies ; Philosophical sources of inspiration for African education Part III.

National discourse in education and struggle over the hegemony. Post-history and comclusion. Eucational adaptation and public response in Ghana after independence ; Conclusion. This richly researched book untangles the discourse on education for African leaders, which involved diverse actors such as colonial officials, missionaries, European and American educationists or ideologues in Africa and diaspora.

The analysis is presented around two foci of decision-making: one is the Memorandum on Education Policy in British Tropical Africa, issued by the British Colonial Office in ; another is the Achimota School established on the Gold Coast Colony present-day Ghana as a model school in Ideas brought from different sources were mingled and converged on the areas where the motivations of actors have coincided. The local and the global was linked through the chains of discourse, interacting with global economic, political and social concerns. The book also vividly describes how the ideals of colonial education were realized in Achimota School.

Y36 Available. Mattos, Regiane Augusto de author. M38 Unknown. P56 Unknown. Dionne, Kim Yi, author. Description Book — xv, pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm Summary 1. Introduction-- 2. AIDS in Africa: a significant challenge and a disconnected response-- 3. AIDS in Malawi-- 5. Policy priorities in the time of AIDS-- 6. Seeing like a village: headmen as agents of the global AIDS intervention-- 7.

In this book for students of political economy and public policy in Africa, as well as global health, Kim Yi Dionne tries to understand why AIDS interventions in Africa often fail. The fight against AIDS requires the coordination of multiple actors across borders and levels of governance in highly affected countries, and these actors can be the primary sources of the problem. Dionne observes misaligned priorities along the global chain of actors, and argues this misalignment can create multiple opportunities for failure. Analyzing foreign aid flows and public opinion polls, Dionne shows that while the international community highly prioritizes AIDS, ordinary Africans view AIDS as but one of the many problems they face daily.

A35 D56 Unknown. Nourou Tall, Saidou, author. N68 Unknown. D96 Available. Koffi Koffi, Lazare, author. Paris : L'Harmattan, [] Description Book — pages : illustrations ; 22 cm. E36 K64 Available. Ecological considerations for gene drive systems [electronic resource] []. Lanzaro, Gregory C.. Description Video — 1 online resource 1 streaming video file 35 min. Economic development in Africa report : migration for structural transformation []. New York ; Geneva : United Nations, Description Book — xxii, pages : chiefly colour illustrations, chiefly colour maps ; 21 cm.

Paris : L'Harmattan, [] Description Book — pages : charts ; 22 cm. K65 Available. Education law, strategic policy, and sustainable development in Africa : Agenda []. Egbewole, and T. The authors examine socio-economic rights issues and their impact on developing a strong educational agenda that can drive Africa to realize Agenda As Africa's development has remained slow in the face of many challenges, the need to embrace good governance, rule of law and human rights obligations are major tools to realize the continent's potential.

The project focuses in particular on the central place of education law and policy in achieving the goals of Agenda A2 E53 Unknown. A34 N48 Available. Elections in African developing democracies []. Miezah, Hilary A. It covers the broad spectrum of the democratic electoral process. This project is a synthesis of the author's practical knowledge and experience in the management of elections with the United Nations and other international organizations in Africa and Asia. The author addresses election practitioners, political parties, and all other stake holders, and provides a vision for building and blending indigenous traditions and systems of election into universally accepted norms and practices.