Steinfatt analyzes trafficking in Cambodia. Molland analyzes human trafficking across the Thai—Laotian border, and Stanslas that into Malaysia. Lee has addressed human trafficking in East Asia; Kim et al. Sullivan has examined legalized prostitution and trafficking in Victoria, Australia. Scholars have focused on the social construction of trafficking in two main respects. Some have argued that there is a moral crusade evident in the way trafficking is constructed, which disproportionately focuses on trafficking for sexual exploitation.
Lobasz highlights in depth the contributions of feminists writing on human trafficking, showing how feminists have analyzed the social construction of human trafficking. Peet illustrates how dominant ideas were incorporated into the Palermo Trafficking Protocol.
Anderson and O'Connell Davidson , in an often-cited work on the demand for trafficking, show that the demand for the services of trafficked women is socially constructed. The authors maintain that, just as individuals are not born with the desire to drink Coca-Cola and play the lottery, so the demand for the services of trafficked victims is also not innate. Data in Anderson and O'Connell Davidson's work underline that, in any of the countries surveyed, no less than 77 percent of men were aware that women may have been trafficked into prostitution, yet in a number of cases that knowledge did not preclude their demand for the services of trafficked women.
Social norms in each country, the study found, had a strong impact on individual positions toward trafficking. The demand side of trafficking has also been analyzed by Hughes , who highlights its importance and discusses it in the context of an argument against legalization of prostitution. Di Nicola et al. Some authors have argued that too much of an exaggerated emphasis has been placed on sex trafficking in public discourse, therefore becoming an expression of certain moral tenets within a political agenda Wijers ; Ditmore , ; Weitzer Ditmore , analyzes how morality and ideologies shape the social construction of trafficking and supports the view that there is a large conflation between trafficking and sex work.
O'Brien , in a comparative study with Australia, shows how ideology influences US policy-making on trafficking. Weitzer argues that trafficking was constructed as a moral crusade targeting prostitution under the George W. Bush administration, and the positions of the numerous organizations and NGOs that deal with the subject have been politicized. As an alternative, Weitzer proposes sector-specific policies and increased attention to the causes of trafficking.
Immigrants are perceived to be a threat to jobs, incomes, national identity and culture, among others Faist ; Lahav Despite the fact that the connection between international migration and security threats is problematic and the linkage inconclusive Faist ; Karyotis , in both academic discourse and amongst the public, attention focuses disproportionately on the negative consequences of transnational communities Faist The security—migration nexus in public debate has sometimes utilized the portrayal of some migrants as victims.
TVPA provided for the introduction of a visa for victims of trafficking to remain in the United States legally and receive services comparable to those of refugees, while they testify against their attackers DHHS Chapkis considers that the spirit of the legislation is not a departure from earlier policies but, rather, representative of anti-sex and anti-immigrant policies. Dauvergne —93 also illustrates how trafficking discourse and legislation have centered on the trafficked individual as a victim.
Segrave also focuses on the important role of repatriation within the security—trafficking nexus, and emphasizes victimization and criminalization in policy efforts. The shortage of reliable data has been a pervasive problem for researchers in the fields of human smuggling and human trafficking. International organizations in recent years have attempted to propose improved guidelines for data compilation and increase standardization in data collection across countries.
Despite the increase of attention to trafficking, and a certain increase in the availability of data on human smuggling and trafficking over the past decade Savona and Stefanizzi , the data remain insufficient and difficult to compile, and authors Laczko and Gozdziak ; Tyldum and Brunovskis ; Antonopoulos ; Lobasz point out that few studies rely on extensive empirical work. The problem has been acknowledged by government agencies as well. The State Department has issued the Trafficking in Persons Reports annually since , with specific country statistics and summaries. UNODC released reports, in and , which tracked global trends and specific country information.
In an effort to improve data collection in , IOM, together with the Austrian Ministry of the Interior and with financing from the European Commission, published guidelines for the collection of data on human trafficking IOM and BM. I The expert group on trafficking in human beings in the European Union has taken steps to develop indicators that could be used to monitor trends and enhance comparative data between states EU Laczko and Gramegna address some of the problems in indicators on trafficking, and link the higher reliability of data to a higher priority accorded to the issue on the policy and enforcement level.
Jahic and Finckenauer examine problems and definitions of the crime of human smuggling by different stakeholders, such as governments and the public, and their influence on formulating policies. The specific challenges, both ethical and methodological, in conducting research with illegal migrants have been addressed in the work of Bilger and Van Liempt The migration approach to trafficking emphasizes state security and has frequently been incorporated as a policy approach on the national level.
Contrary to that approach are policies allowing for trafficking victims, once identified, to receive a residential permit to remain in the country of reception and testify against their traffickers. The residential permit illustrates the legal and analytical distinction between trafficked and smuggled individuals. In the US, pursuant to the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of , people who are victims of trafficking are eligible for such a permit, a T-visa, to stay in the country and testify, having access to government services, while those smuggled into the country are illegal aliens subject to deportation NILC ; Shelley In , a directive of the Council of the European Union provided that all EU members were to implement this residence permit for victims of trafficking from outside the EU.
The provision of the temporary residential permit for trafficking victims in the European Union shows that policy has reflected the increasing awareness on the issue, as the norm against trafficking began consolidation after Locher In practice, the residential permit is supposed to reduce the tension between police productivity, often measured by aliens in detention, and care for trafficking victims. A number of international institutions and NGOs have been actively involved in combating trafficking. GIFT program. The program seeks to increase awareness, provide technical assistance, promote rights-based responses, and strengthen partnerships for joint action UN.
GIFT The problems of trafficking and smuggling of persons have received increased attention in the European Union since the mids. Among the major EU initiatives is the Ministerial Hague Declaration, a landmark step in anti-trafficking efforts. Its issuance took place in the late s, when the anti-trafficking norm emerged and became established in a European context Locher Through a constructivist theory lens, Birgit Locher traces the process of how anti-trafficking norms gradually gained prominence and became incorporated into European Union policy.
The Declaration represented a major step in the fight against trafficking of women for sexual exploitation. In it, member states made a commitment to appoint national rapporteurs for trafficking. In , the European Council adopted a program on combating illegal migration and trafficking in the European Union and subsequently, in November , the Hague Program was adopted by the Council Van Selm The program sought to manage migration, strengthen collaboration between member governments, and foster partnerships with trafficking regions of origin and transit, both within and outside the EU.
The Joint EU Action Plan —10 focused on developing a comprehensive EU strategy to measure crime, where the development of EU statistics on trafficking in human beings is a priority. Border management in EU policy has played a significant role in combating crime and human smuggling and trafficking Bomberg, Peterson, and Stubb and an expert group on trafficking in human beings was commissioned in to assist the European Commission EU OSCE's anti-trafficking initiatives include the appointment of a Special Representative and Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, who works in coordination with other branches of the organization.
Since the initiation of the alliance by OSCE's Special Representative for Human Trafficking in , it has held annual conferences to increase awareness and cooperation. The Council of Europe has also been active in anti-trafficking efforts, and in adopted and opened for signature its Convention against the Trafficking of Human Beings Antonopoulos The convention views trafficking primarily through a human rights lens, emphasizing victim protection, and also contains provisions for prevention and prosecution Antonopoulos ; Council of Europe The Convention has 27 states-parties that have ratified the document, which entered into force in February Council of Europe :2; NGOs have also been very active in the fight against human trafficking.
In addition to the above-mentioned organizations that have participated in collaborative efforts, they include the European Women's Lobby, the largest umbrella association of women's organizations in the European Union, with branches in all 27 member states, Amnesty International, Bonded Labor, Anti-Slavery International, and La Strada. An in-depth overview of the rise of the humanitarian anti-traffic movement in the first half of the twentieth century and of its work with the League of Nations can be found in Limoncelli , and a discussion of the latter's anti-trafficking committee activity before in Pliley The European Union addressed human smuggling in the period — primarily through the efforts of its Justice and Home Affairs pillar, established by the Treaty of Maastricht.
Another regional initiative is the Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, adopted in Beijing in by the interregional Asia—Europe Meeting, which involves 43 countries Antonopoulos In summary, human smuggling and human trafficking are fundamentally different crimes, as specified in the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its two supplementary Protocols.
Human smuggling is something to which individuals have consented, and is generally considered a crime against the government of the country that the migrant is trying to enter illegally. In contrast, human trafficking involves exploitation and is a crime against a person, as the trafficked person has not consented to the exploitative activity. The two issues gained prominence in policy in the s, and in academic literature in the last decade.
Three main debates characterize the literature on human smuggling: the social organization of smuggling networks i. The voluminous literature on human trafficking has been dominated by four main theories: the migration approach, which treats trafficking victims merely as migrants, not accounting for human rights and gender dimensions of the matter; the radical feminist approach, which sees trafficking as violence against women 79 percent of all trafficking cases are for sexual exploitation ; the sex work approach, which argues that the best way to counter sex trafficking is to legalize prostitution and increase transparency in the sector; and finally, the repressive approach, which opposes legalized prostitution, arguing that legalization neither curbs the problem nor helps trafficked women.
A great deal of work in human trafficking has addressed the social construction of trafficking, in the context of both illegal migration and the linkage between security and migration, and an emphatic focus on sex trafficking that reflects social norms on sexuality.
In general, the efforts of states to codify and enforce specific measures against human trafficking remain key factors in combating the problem Marinova and James Overall, while the literature on human smuggling and human trafficking has developed a great deal over the past decade, more research is needed, for instance in addressing gender dimensions in human smuggling organizations.
In academic writing, regional studies on trafficking have occupied a prominent place, yet the majority of the work has centered on North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Further area-specific studies are needed on human trafficking and smuggling, particularly on the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. Finally, despite the discussion in the scholarly literature of the methodological problems, and recent efforts of international organizations to improve standardization and data collection procedures, the lack of solid, reliable data remains a pervasive obstacle to research and policy formulation alike in the field of human trafficking.
Efforts to increase the standardization of data on trafficking include the WomenStats database by Caprioli et al. Within this framework, it also incorporates the status of trafficking of women. The WomanStats Project includes a trafficking scale that serves as a quantitative measure of compliance and enforcement for each of the countries in the database. The problem for all researchers lies in the necessity to rely, in a number of cases, on data released by governmental institutions.
In many cases, data are either not systematically collected or reported by governments, or are collected in ways that significantly vary across different countries. Further complicating the matter is the pervasive problem that human smuggling and human trafficking represent a subject area that lacks transparency and involves criminal groups or transnational criminal networks.
As human trafficking and human smuggling are illicit activities, researcher access to information often encounters significant challenges and limitations. Nonetheless, in light of both the gravity and the global scope of human smuggling and trafficking, the latter alone claiming an estimated 27 million victims worldwide US State Department , these issues are likely to remain a central focus of sustained academic and policy work in the coming decades.
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European Law Journal 12 1 , — Miller, M. Human Rights Review 12 3 , — Moises, N. New York: Doubleday. Molland, S. Asian Studies Review 34 2 , — Moreno, S. Washington Post , April Mountz, A. Canadian Foreign Policy 13 1 , 59— Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Murray, A. Lewis and S. Mills eds. Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader , 1st edn. Human trafficking in Greece. Human trafficking in Guatemala. Human trafficking in Guinea. Human trafficking in Guinea-Bissau.
Human trafficking in Guyana. Human trafficking in Haiti. Human trafficking in Honduras. Human trafficking in Hong Kong. Human trafficking in Hungary. Human trafficking in Iceland. Human trafficking in India See Child trafficking in India. Human trafficking in Indonesia.
Central Asia Western Asia. Human trafficking in Iran. Human trafficking in Iraq. Human trafficking in Ireland. Human trafficking in Israel. Human trafficking in Italy. Human trafficking in Jamaica. Human trafficking in Japan. Human trafficking in Jordan. Eastern Europe Central Asia. Human trafficking in Kazakhstan. Human trafficking in Kenya. Human trafficking in Kiribati. Human trafficking in South Korea. Human trafficking in Kuwait.
Human trafficking in Kyrgyzstan. Human trafficking in Laos. Human trafficking in Latvia. Human trafficking in Lebanon. Human trafficking in Lesotho. Human trafficking in Liberia. Human trafficking in Libya. Human trafficking in Lithuania. Human trafficking in Luxembourg. Human trafficking in Macau. Human trafficking in Macedonia. Human trafficking in Madagascar. Human trafficking in Malawi.
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Human trafficking in Malaysia. Human trafficking in Mali. Human trafficking in Malta. Human trafficking in Mauritania. Human trafficking in Mauritius. Human trafficking in Mexico. Human trafficking in Moldova. East Asia Central Asia. Human trafficking in Mongolia. Human trafficking in Montenegro. Human trafficking in Morocco. Human trafficking in Mozambique. Human trafficking in Namibia.
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Human trafficking in Peru. Human trafficking in the Philippines. Human trafficking in Poland. Human trafficking in Portugal. Human trafficking in Qatar. Human trafficking in Romania. Northern Eurasia. Human trafficking in Russia. Human trafficking in Rwanda. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Human trafficking in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Human trafficking in Saudi Arabia. Human trafficking in Senegal. Human trafficking in Serbia. Human trafficking in Sierra Leone. Human trafficking in Singapore.
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Western Asia Eastern Europe. Human trafficking in Turkey. Central Asia Eastern Europe. Human trafficking in Turkmenistan. East Africa Eastern Europe.