Islam took over from Judaism the notion that Abraham in particular was the one who re discovered monotheism and rejected idolatry. Thus Muhammad sought to restore the authentic monotheism of Abraham, from which even Jews and Christians had allegedly deviated. If he lived at all, which is doubtful, Abraham presumably flourished early in the second millennium BCE. Critical historians and archaeologists, however, argue that Israelite monotheism only developed about the time of the Babylonian Exile — well over a thousand years later.
The reason why there are different conceptions of God and of gods is surely not that humans have culpably strayed from an original revelation. Rather, these beliefs are human constructions and reconstructions that reflect our own rationalisations, hopes, fears and aspirations. The latter include attempts by particular groups of people to defend their identity or even assert their hegemony over others on the grounds that they have been uniquely favoured by God with authentic revelation.
That seems to be why some Christians deny that Allah is just another name for God. It also explains Malaysian Muslim efforts to prevent Christians from referring to God as Allah for fear that legitimising the Christian understanding of Allah will threaten Islamic dominance in their country. A tunnel to the beginning of time: a lecture on particle physics and the large hadron collider — Egham, Surrey. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. Christopher van der Krogt , Massey University. The main dome of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul. Gods as human constructions If he lived at all, which is doubtful, Abraham presumably flourished early in the second millennium BCE.
The Third Commandment is explicit about the necessity of His true Name in our worship. Removal of His name brings it to a state of ruin and desolation. But a personal name easily solves this identity problem, and of course is entirely appropriate as well.
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He commands His people to call on His revealed, personal Name. The obvious purpose of a name is to distinguish one individual from another. That should go without saying, yet how many think about that simple fact when it comes to their Heavenly Father? They have been taught to call Him by a generic label, which He Himself says is unacceptable. It is amazing that all religions are known by the name of the one worshiped … except Christianity.
Using a nondescript, indefinite, impersonal, nonidentifying title does not identify the One you worship! By removing His Name from our Bibles and our worship we denigrate Him and bring Him down to the lowest common denominator. What then is the revealed, personal Name of the Creator of the universe as established in the Bible? He says that when you hear my Name that you will know it is I. It is His personal identity. His Name tells it all. It also distinguishes His people when they call on Him in His Name.
How important is His Name? Salvation comes only through His Name. Theologians along with the general public are starting to catch up with Bible scholarship, textual proof, and historical fact, all of which reveal the truth of the Name Yahweh. He explained His Name and its significance in Exodus 3.
In verse 15 He told Moses that His Name was a memorial to all generations. Memorial in Hebrew zakar means to mark, remember, mention.
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Yahweh causes all things to exist, including us human beings, He is the self-existent One. He causes everything in the universe to be and He controls all of it. We exist because He exists. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, agrees that the J is only a modification of the Latin I and dates back with a separate value only to the 15th century.
The Moffatt Bible says in the preface about the Jehovah:. The name Jehovah is a synthetic blend. It even has a shocking aspect. The suffix hovah is No.
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The Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropedia, vol. Drusius, and L. Why was His Name Yahweh avoided and hidden for millennia? They took that injunction and ramped it up, so that just pronouncing the Name constituted a serious offense. Ultimately, the Jews would not use the Name even in normal religious worship or exercises. Why did He say that?
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It was because they had worshiped the queen of heaven! It was a punishment for their sins. We have statements from Philo and Josephus around the time of Yahshua that this avoidance in uttering the name carried over into the New Testament as well. The Jewish belief that the name was not to be pronounced was picked up in the 2nd century C. They also adopted the notion that Adonai, translated Lord kyrios in Greek , gave the Heavenly Father a universal character.
Finally, the Jewish practice of avoiding the Name further evolved among Christians into the belief that the Name was no longer important and to use it was Judaizing. Specifically, the Greek letters kappa epsilon with a line above them were inserted for the sacred Name.
All of the earliest Christian papyri exhibit the nomina sacra. While scholars are still debating the purpose, some propose that this shortening of key words may have been used to replace the Tetragrammaton see Ex. In fact, in those places where the Tetragrammaton should appear, the definite article is missing in front of the nomina sacra. Those four letters are: yod, hay, waw, hay or YHWH in our alphabet.
This four-lettered name is seen abundantly throughout the ancient Hebrew manuscripts, including the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest of the Bible manuscripts in existence. Already in the sixteenth century Mercerus suggested that the original pronunciation of the name was Yahwe Anchor Bible note on Job. Both the vocalization yahwe and yahu a shortened form used chiefly in personal names are now confirmed by a variety of ancient Near Eastern inscriptional materials from the first and second millennia B.
Others who confirm the correct rendition of the Tetragrammaton include Origen in his Hexapla Greek revision of the Septuagint and Jerome, who translated the Old Testament into Latin. Some misinformed individuals have claimed that the exact pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is unknown because Hebrew lacks vowels.
This is incorrect for several reasons. Hebrew indeed has vowels, but the vowels were just not written into the Hebrew text. If Hebrew had no vowels then the entire Old Testament could not be read out loud or spoken. The Hebrew speaker understood the correct pronunciation of each word because he knew the language and the sounds of the letters and their combinations. Consider, we can decipher many English words through repeated usage, even with no vowels. Later in the seventh century C.
These scribes obviously knew how to pronounce Hebrew words! We have also seen how the wrong vowel points were purposely used to try to hide the name Yahweh. No language can be spoken without vowels. Vowels are vocalized with the open mouth. It would be virtually impossible to pronounce words without vowels; all you could do with just consonants alone is make incomprehensible sounds try pronouncing those last two words with their vowels removed: ncmprhnsbl snds.
When these consonants do double-duty as vowels they help in the pronunciation of many Hebrew words. But there is yet more confirmation that Yahweh is the correct Name. The Jewish priest and historian Josephus, who lived in the first century of the New Testament era, attests that the Tetragrammaton is made up of vowels. The personal, revealed Name Yahweh is attested in the prefaces of some Bibles. Yahweh has a much different attitude about His personal Name, however. Repeatedly He emphasizes the necessity of His Name.
He said His Name alone is Yahweh forever, and it is not subject to alterations. In a critical passage He declares that there is salvation in no other name.
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After reading what He Himself says, who can argue that substitute names and titles are just as acceptable to Him? It is completely restored in our own Restoration Study Bible. Abundant evidence of the true Name exists within the Bible itself. Nicknames, which are often just shortened versions of the longer name, were used anciently as well as today. Abram was a shortened version of Abraham. Yahweh also has a short form of His name, which is spelled by the first two letters of the Tetragrammaton, YH.
Having His Name encoded in the names of notable Bible personalities is known as theophany. Even the Druidic ceremonial robes remind one of the Mosaic priests, with their breastplates of gold and jewels. The Druidic rituals, like the Old Testament Levitical, included the sacrifice of sheep, oxen, and goats, but no idol worship.
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Truly, these are additional witnesses to the identity of the House of Israel in the world today. But the religious customs of the Covenant people became corrupted with the religion of the Phoenician Canaanites. Some of the principal finds include altar-stones found in Northumbria and other parts of Britain. Numerous other parallels exist between Celtic and Hebrew-Canaanite worship, including mystic well-worship, worship of sacred stones, and the veneration of the autumnal equinoxes.
Since this so-called god was no god at all, the idolaters were literally worshipping nothing! There are five rivers Avon in Britain, of which three pass through Gloustershire, where Celtic worship of this god was centered. In the same English district is an old town named Avening. Similarly, the goddess Chiun was worshipped by the idolatrous Canaanites and the Israelites who followed their custom. Chiun was the moon goddess, and was considered so important that she was called the queen of heaven.
In fact, it is from this word, Chiun, that we derive our English word, queen. The Prophet Jeremiah mentions worship of this goddess several times. This was the greatest solemnity of the year. They called it, in many places, Yole or Yuul, from the word Hiaul, which even at this day signifies the sun in the languages of the Bas-Bretagne and Cornwall. A Christmas holiday beer, Ale, may be from the same root.
And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. It is popular teaching today to say because Asenath dwelled in Egypt, that therefore Joseph married a Negro. But the fact that her family were sun-worshippers worshipping On, the Semitic sun-god, is proof positive of a Semitic identity. It is from this word, On, that we derive the Latin, annus, meaning a year, from the annual solar revolution, and the English, annual.
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Concerning this last location, a circle of Druidic stones with a cromlech in the center at Arran indicates sun worship. Stukely pointed out Old Testament references to oaks, which gave these trees symbolic or mystical attributes. And the Canaanite was then in the land.