Our eating habits depend on a culture that vary in time and space, as well as on our own personal choices. Of all our meals, none varies more than breakfast. Breakfast is the first opportunity we have to intake the energy we need to perform our daily activities. Correct nutritional intake improves long term cognitive performance, regulates energy intake during the other meals of the day by reducing total daily calorie and lipid intake , and increases the intake of fibres, vitamins and minerals; this improves our nutritional status throughout life and has a positive effect on the prevention of chronic-degenerative diseases such as overweight, obesity, hypertension, and Type 2 diabetes.
Although all reported data underline the important role that breakfast plays in maintaining the health and well-being of an individual, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. We need to adopt a systematic approach to these problems including everything that affects our relationship with breakfast.
GVZ and CM critically revised the entire manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ital J Pediatr v. Ital J Pediatr. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Antonio Affinita: ti. Received Jul 7; Accepted Jul 8.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle.
- 60 Best Toiletries Bliss images in | Bliss, Body care, Personal care.
- Declutter Your Life: Reduce Stress, Increase Productivity, and Enjoy Your Clutter-Free Life!
- Les Misérables (Dover Books on Literature & Drama);
- brooklyn rose Ebook.
- Menu de navigation?
Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age.
Socio-Anthropological point of view The cultural importance of food has been neglected for years; only in the early seventies food began to spark the interest of social scholars. Nutrition and health issues Child and adolescent Scientific data increasingly shows that breakfast plays an important role in ensuring the good health and wellbeing of an individual.
Bio-psycho-social point of view Scientific literature shows that breakfast in pre-school and school children has a direct effect on psychological functioning. Summary The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning.
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References Montanari M. Monastic rules about food. Roma-Bari: Laterza; Alimentazione e cultura nel Medioevo; p. In: Alimentation, emploi du temps et rythmes sociaux. Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique; Le temps de manger.
Milan: Pirotta; Nuovo Convivio. Rome-Bari: Laterza; Il brodo indiano. Edonismo ed esotismo nel Settecento. Milan: Garzanti; Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. Overweight, obesity and body fat composition in Spanish adolescents.
Ann Nutr Metab. Risultati Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behavior. Br J Nutr. Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Circulation and energy metabolism of the brain. Basic Neurochemistry. Boston: Little Brown; A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET. Prev Med. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutr Res Rev. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.
Physiol Behav. Breakfast reduces declines in attention and memory over the morning in schoolchildren. The delivery rate of dietary carbohydrates affects cognitive performance in both rats and humans. Psychopharmacology Berl ; — The influence of the glycaemic load of breakfast on the behaviour of children in school. Eating breakfast enhances the efficiency of neural networks engaged during mental arithmetic in school-aged children. Impact of breakfast consumption on nutritional adequacy of the diets of young adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana: ethnic and gender contrasts.
The effect of breakfast cereal on diet and serum cholesterol: a randomized trial in North Karelia, Finland. Eur J Clin Nutr. Breakfast cereal consumption patterns and nutrient intakes of British schoolchildren. J R Soc Health. Dietary studies of children: the Bogalusa Heart Study experience. At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand children: associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors. Eating patterns and obesity in children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med.
Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long-term weight regulation. Acyl and total ghrelin are suppressed strongly by ingested proteins, weakly by lipids, and biphasically by carbohydrates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Low glycaemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project.
Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. The relationship of ready-to-eat cereal consumption to nutrient intake, blood lipids, and body mass index of children as they age through adolescence. Public Health Nutr. Obesity Silver Spring ; 15 — Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study.
Think differently and you will begin to change your life. Life mastery is not difficult once we believe in its possibility and also desire to achieve it. What are you passionate about? Have you found it?
Mindwise: How We Understand What Others Think, Believe, Feel, And Want 2014
If not, quit thinking about it. Discovering your passion will not be revealed by logical analysis; it is only found through your heart — that moment when you feel totally lost in your own joy. You are blocking your emotions by responding to outside influences or voices telling you how you should feel. If you are forsaking your own opportunity for joy, you are conforming to these external expectations and not those that you created for yourself.
Over time, you can literally forget what really makes you happy and what you are most passionate about. Life is meant to be lived passionately, not with a boring sameness day after day. You should seek every opportunity to make your heart sing with the excitement of life itself.
You only need to reflect upon and then recreate those moments when you were euphoric about something you did, felt, experienced or were engaged in. You may need to return to your childhood to recall those moments. It may have been something difficult where you felt the challenge of achievement. Perhaps it was assisting someone else that needed your help. It could be something that required your physical energy, creative spirit or even your quiet reflection observing a sunset.
If you listen to your heart, you will know what has stirred your passions in the past. This is what a real life is all about. Take a moment and survey your horizon. Is your future full of hope and promise or is it foreboding and worrisome? Having hope will project happiness. Richard P. Either set of self-beliefs will likely govern the results. You have the freedom to choose between the two viewpoints. You should choose wisely. Life happiness is not the same as life satisfaction.
Life satisfaction, however, is a constant state of belief. It would then follow that life satisfaction is a more worthy pursuit, that once achieved it would support more opportunities for life happiness. In other words, focus on life satisfaction first. Relocation always seems like an attractive option but this too will require some deep analysis.
Are you wanting to be near your grandchildren, aging parents or your own children? It is imperative, however, that you and your spouse are on the same page and that you also have some discussions with friends and family before making any major decisions. Even the location and quality of medical services needs to be factored into the relocation equation. Again, doing your homework beforehand will make a huge difference in choosing the place that ideally matches your real needs and desires. As a retirement specialist, I have a plethora of information and data resources for you to consider.
Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach
My probing questions and helpful exercises will be very beneficial, giving you the clarity you need before making this important decision. Since we have a finite timetable for life, why not decide today what risks we are willing to take and then begin the process of taking them. So will we answer this question for ourselves, or will we let others answer it for us? Will we act out of fear or out of courage? If we decide to go for it , what will It be? The choice is ours. Our objective should not be to eliminate all unhappiness but rather to balance it with increased opportunity for joy.
Buddha may have reminded us, A hundred loves, a hundred losses. No loves, no losses, but are we prepared to abandon the potential for love because we fear the potential for loss? Would there be any value in giving up our rights to search for a single sliver of happiness because we must first dig through a mountain of sadness to locate it?
For that matter, would we not search for truth because it is hidden among deceit? Or would we not seek honor because we feel that it is surrounded by contempt? Or not seek courage because it is covered with cowardice? Or not seek morality because it is shrouded within an immoral society? Happiness is ours to discover despite the deterrents that stand in our way; it is our human right to be elated despite a world that flagrantly flaunts its despairing side. Our purpose, therefore, is to strive toward a sense of internal peace within ourselves.
This does not mean that we will live in perfect contentment but rather we will be contented with ourselves. The difference is that the former implies an unrealistic, stress free state of consciousness while the latter implies that we are in conscious control of our state of gratification. We will feel it is possible to rise above the vagaries of unhappiness that may surround us. We will resist the feeling of being dragged into a maelstrom of discontentment because we will see ourselves as the calm center of the storm.
And our joy will abound through our sense of calm purpose being recognized and lived through our daily actions. Inner peace then becomes our right and our choice. For some baffling reason, we have gotten caught up in an insatiable need for more s tuff — from clothes, cars, houses, electronic gadgets, toys, furniture and fixtures to new hairdos, pedicures and tummy tucks.
We want to possess everything imaginable and never seem to be content anymore with the basics. According to comedian George Carlin, we even need to own s tuff to put our stuff into.
We like to take our s tuff with us wherever we go, and when we get there we have to buy more stuff so we can take it home to be with other stuff! Our fascination with stuff , however, is not the problem. It is the lifestyle that we must pursue to acquire, maintain and manage our stuff. All of this stuff is the antithesis to a sane, balanced and purposeful life. While we tend to believe that our happiness emanates from our possessions it is, in fact, these same possessions that become the bane and curse to a joyful and meaningful life.
According to Elaine St. James, Wise men and women in every major culture throughout history have found that the secret to happiness is not in getting more but in wanting less. Only when we make it our purpose to not make stuff the measure of our contentment, will we truly understand how simply beautiful and beautifully simple life can be lived.
Future time is really no more valuable to our happiness and success than is our Past time, since Future time exists only in our minds, hopes and dreams. Kay Lyons said it best, Yesterday is a canceled check; Tomorrow is only a promissory note; today is the only cash you have — so spend it wisely. This means that there is only one time that is relevant to our happiness and fulfillment of a meaningful life — The Present! If I find the visual form for that, it is as if I got a possible answer to my questions.
It makes me deeply happy, if the observer becomes affected by finding that image relevant also for his or her questions in life. It means that my autobiographical approach has a wider meaning and is connected to a universal value. It confirms the fact that the individual being is not alone on earth. To belong to the human species is a hope for me. Is there a philosophical element in your work?
H - Of course, by creating an artwork it is basic to be authentic, as well it is basic to be so in life. I do not make difference between being a person, a woman living in a certain time at a certain place, related to certain other persons and being an artist. I do not make difference between my life and an artistic act. As I said before, my artworks are based on a single, short existence but related to the whole development of nature. Throughout the visual form, I communicate those apparently little parts of life, which are — transposed — fundamental questions mankind has faced since ever.
Philosophy, as well as religion, explores and tries to order those experiences and questions. Mine is a conceptual approach. For example, daily-life gestures executed as conscious acts can become rituals with sacred meaning. G est ures may change status.
In this image the observer could recognize him or herself as it is contextualized by video and digital art expert Gabriel Soucheyre in his text Take me to the moon I'll see who I am for that setting. From October to January , my solo exhibition me and you — May I tell you something personal? It is about the exchange of information between subject and object on human level and the relationship between the moving image of a video and the not-moving image of one of its video-still-images or photographies.
In March the single channel video loving - which you know very well, dear Kisito, as you brought it with your international video program TIME is Love. The indissoluble interconnection of what I am and what I am not, the relationship, the communication and the course of time are themes of those exhibitions and projects and I consider them as red lines in my whole activity. Do you view yourself as a creator? It guarantees the evolution of life and it allows the upcoming life of humans.
Education is important for being conscious of it and being able to use it. Just living means to be a creator. My artworks are visual pieces of my life. To be able to express that creativity is wonderful and I am very grateful for that. Their perception depends on social, historical and geographical context and on the approachability of the receiver. At that moment, I had elaborated the idea it was complete for me.